Felsefi Düşün Issue:1 / October 2013Please click on the name of any article for abstract and keywords.
Turkish Translation of Sergio CREMASCHI’s “Who was the Father of Analytic Ethics? George Edward Moore’s DNA Test
I reconstruct the background of ideas, concerns and intentions out of which Moore’s early essays, the preliminary version, and then the final version of Principia Ethica originated. I stress the role of religious concerns, as well as that of the Idealist legacy. I argue that PE is more a patchwork of rather diverging contributions than a unitary work, not to say the paradigm of a new school in Ethics. I add a comparison with Rashdall’s almost contemporary ethical work, suggesting that the latter defends the same general claims in a different way, one that gives way to less fatal objections. I end by suggesting that the emergence of Analytic Ethics was a more ambiguous phenomenon than the received view would make us believe, and that the wheat (or some other gluten-free grain) of this tradition, that is, what logic can do for philosophy, has to be separated from the chaff, that is, the confused and mutually incompatible legacies of Utilitarianism and Idealism.
Keywords: Moore, George Edward; Rashdall, Hastings; analytic ethics; utilitarianism; naturalistic fallacy; religion.
An Essay On Utilitarianism As An Effective Concept In Today’s Sense Of Life And Problematiques Of The Greatest Happiness Principle
Utilitarian Moral Understanding which had started with Sophists evolved in the direction of the economical ideas of capitalism and following the Industrial Revolution it started to be interpreted in line with “laissez-faire”. By involving concepts in its structure such as “economical individualism”, “self benefit”, “passion for acquiring possession”, “general happiness”, the Utilitarianism undertook the defender role of the era’s economical and political tendencies. As formed with the principle of “The Greatest Happiness for Greatest Number of People”, Utilitarianism is seen as a philosophical approach focused on the happiness of the society rather than the individual. However, Utilitarianism handles the concept of “happiness” as it can somehow be measured quantitatively and “General Happiness” as a mathematical process: The sum of the each individual happiness leads us to the “The Greatest Happiness”. The content of “General Happiness” concept is uncertain so it is very convenient for the political leaders to justify their decisions. “The Greatest Happiness for Greatest Number of People” brings the risk of consideration of human with cost-benefit analysis. Furthermore, Utilitarianism protects the principal of “Everything is doable” by not presenting any criterion but only itself for the concept of “uprightness”. Thus, Utilitarianism has become philosophical substratums for the benefit groups or political leaders as to use force to get what they want; even our very near past has examples of violations of human rights by stating “Common Good or Benefit” as reason. Start up point of my research was to investigate an philosophical approach underlying the political understanding, mass culture and individualism of “advanced industrial societies” in our age. Today, the Utilitarianism and Pragmatic approach to individual and society offer convenient arguments that the concepts turn into “means” of alienation, consuming society and mass culture.
Keywords: Utilitarianism, John Stuart Mill, Jeremy Bentham, General Happiness, Hedonism
Turkish Translation of Dionysis DROSOS’ “The Promised Land of Liberty and The Mirage of ‘Spontaneous Order’”
The idea of ‘spontaneous order’ is of fundamental importance to the neoliberal conception of liberty, as construed by Hayek. Such an idea is supposed to provide a libertarian alternative to what Hayek names ‘constructivism’ leading to totalitarianism, as a general organizational principle for a modern market society. In this conception, market provides the model par excellence for both the understanding and building of social order. The following paper, is an effort: a) to question the relevance of the neoliberal usage of the notion of ‘spontaneous order’, exploring the origins of the idea, which hark back to theorizations conceived in substantially different contexts, b) to question the ‘spontaneity’ of the aforementioned principle, i.e. its pretension that the market order could be self-sufficient, without any assistance from ‘constructivist’ elements, namely government interventionism, and c) to question the ‘orderliness’ of the outcome, suggesting that serious social disorders, destabilization, and democratic deficit are more likely to occur than general order, harmony and freedom.
Keywords: Neoliberalism, Spontaneous Order, Market Society, Hayek, Adam Smith
The Secularisation And Transformation Of The Concept of Justice In The Enlightenment From Thomas Hobbes To Adam Smith
The aim of the paper is to gain a positive understanding of the Enlightenment. The paper tries to realise this by presenting the Enlightenment as a movement of freedom. From Enlightenment’s point of view, the precondition for being free and liberating is that humans have a secular view of the world. How did the Enlightenment secularised and transformed the concept of justice? In the paper, I tried to give an answer to this question by placing it into this framework and by closer looking at Thomas Hobbes’s and Adam Smith’s work. There is a tension between David Hume and Adam Smith concerning future perspective, which I tried to make productive for further debates.
Keywords: Enlightenment, liberty, justice, utopia, secularisation
Aristotle On Matter
The present article discusses in five sections the Aristotelian concept of “matter” and its function within Aristotle’s philosophy. In the first section the topic is generally introduced in a manner largely based on Richard Sorabji’s commentary, as it is presented in his book Matter, Space and Movement. The second section focuses, then, on a serious difficulty as to the relation between matter and substance. Whereas in the third section Aristotle’s position regarding four elements is aimed to be clarified, the forth section handles the reason why for Aristotle matter is the principle of kinesis (movement). In the fifth and final section of the article some conclusive remarks are made.
Keywords: matter, Aristotle, substance, change, four elements, movement
Turkish Translation of Roberto RODRIGUEZ MILÁN’s “The Spanish Enlightenment in the Essays of Philosopher Julián Marías during the Francoist Dictatorship”
The 18th century Spanish Enlightenment seeks a compatible balance between national tradition and European modernity. Because of its general nature –moderate goals, respect for the political and religious establishment, clerical status of many of its representatives– it is also known as “Spanish Christian Enlightenment”. However, the foreign origin of its ideas and its commitment with modernization are perceived as a threat against the national tradition –religion and its doctrines, institutions and knowledge tools. The French Revolution seems to confirm those fears and the hostility against the Enlightenment lasts in Spain until the 20th century. At the end of the Spanish Civil War, in 1939, the dictatorship imposed on the country seems to ensure the final victory of the national traditionalism most reactionary version. In such a context the catholic liberal philosopher and political dissident Julián Marías dedicates part of his intellectual efforts to revisit and recover the Spanish Enlightenment and its goals.
Keywords: Spanish Enlightenment, Traditionalism, Julián Marías, Essay, Moratín, Jovellanos, Carlos III, Dictatorship
Adorno’s “Dedication” Of MINIMA MORALIA
In this article, Adorno’s Minima Moralia’s “Dedication” is discussed in order to understand the general content of the book and the author’s mood of spirit and personality. In this context, regarding Adorno’s some critical remarks on Hegel, these two philosophers are compared. This comparison is very significant and valuable in order to understand Adorno and his philosophy.
Keywords: Adorno, Hegel, Minima Moralia, Negative Dialectics, Aphorism.
Plato’s Usage Of The Concept Of Dikaiosynē In The Republic
Plato wrote many dialogues which different specific virtues were issued in each of, but only for dikaiosynē, he wrote a book-length dialogue that consists of 10 parts. In Republic, the meaning of dikaiosynē and the benefits after obtaining it were accentuated. Dikaiosynēis an Ancient Greek word which is often translated to modern languages as “justice” and sometimes “righteousness”. Yet for many commentators, there are some problems in these translations of the concept. Even though Plato himself called our attention to this problem, the first person to notice this ambiguity was Aristotle. This article will try to reflect that the dikaiosynē is a great philosopher’s effort in forming a concept rather than a simple translation problem. In addition, we will also try to show what the other concepts (dikē ve sophrosynē) which dikaiosynē borrowed some parts of its’ meaning from were and determine the place of them in Plato’s thought in general.
Keywords: Plato, Republic, justice, righteousness, moderation