Felsefi Düşün Issue:8 – Heidegger / April 2017
Issue Editor: Kaan H. ÖKTEN (MSGSÜ)
Please click on the name of any article for abstract and keywords.
Türker ARMANER (Galatasaray Üniversitesi)
Melih BAŞARAN (Galatasaray Üniversitesi)
Fulya BAYRAKTAR (Gazi Üniversitesi)
Ayhan ÇİTİL (İstanbul 29 Mayıs Üniversitesi)
Betül ÇOTUKSÖKEN (Maltepe Üniversitesi)
A. Kadir ÇÜÇEN (Uludağ Üniversitesi)
Özge EJDER (MSGSÜ)
Uğur EKREN (İstanbul Üniversitesi)
Kurtul GÜLENÇ (MSGSÜ)
Sevgi İYİ (Maltepe Üniversitesi)
Nazile KALAYCI (Hacettepe Üniversitesi)
Can KARABÖCEK (Kırklareli Üniversitesi)
Levent Yurdakul KAVAS (Yeditepe Üniversitesi)
Aliye K. KOVANLIKAYA (Galatasaray Üniversitesi)
Gamze KESKİN YURDAKURBAN (Kırklareli Üniversitesi)
Murad OMAY (İstanbul Üniversitesi)
Enver ORMAN (İstanbul Üniversitesi)
Güncel ÖNKAL (Maltepe Üniversitesi)
Muttalip ÖZCAN (Maltepe Üniversitesi)
Özgür SOYSAL (Ege Üniversitesi)
Hüseyin Fırat ŞENOL (Anadolu Üniversitesi)
Mehmet ŞİRAY (MSGSÜ)
Ahu TUNÇEL ÖNKAL (Maltepe Üniversitesi)
S. Halil TURAN (ODTÜ)
Sadık TÜRKER (Kırklareli Üniversitesi)
Çiğdem YAZICI (Üsküdar Üniversitesi)
Yücel YÜKSEL (İstanbul Üniversitesi)
Plato’s Euthyphro Dialogue and Heidegger’s Critique of Ontotheology as Answers to The Question of ‘How Does God Enter into Philosophy?’
This article is consists of three parts. Throughout the article the question of ‘How Does God Enter into Philosophy?’ is being tried to be answered by applying the ideas of relevant philosophers, namely, Xenophanes, Plato, Heidegger. In concern with the concepts of ‘God’, ‘Religion’ and ‘Piety’, when they are philosophically treated, we come across many astonishing situations. Impiousness of someone does not mean that this person is an atheist. Beside that, although many people are not leading a religious life they continue to use the concept of ‘God’. In the Introduction the place of religion and God in the daily life of common man is comprehensively laid bare. In the first part the critique of antropomorphic belief in Gods made by Xenophanes as a beginning of philosophical approach to the concept of ‘God’ is explained. Plato’s Euthyphro dialogue is the first philosophical text that questions what religion and the piety are. In the second part, it is put forward that in Plato’s Euthyphro dialogue, in the end, it appears that no definition of piety is convincing; hence for Plato the entry of God into philosophy is impossible. Euthyphro, the wisest of all the men in Athens about religious matters, could not answer the questions put by Socrates and in the end walk out of the discussion. In the third part an account of how God enters into philosophy is given by the analysis of Heidegger’s critique of ontotheology. For Heidegger up to the present metaphysics has been ontotheologically structured. The function of God in philosophy would become comprehensible, provided that the difference between being and beings is understood.
Keywords: God, religion, piety, impiety, ontotheology.
On The Way Back To Plato’s Cave: Heidegger, Platon And Aletheia
In this paper, the concept of ‘aletheia’ in the context of Heidegger’s Plato lecture will be problematized in terms of its ontical and ontological senses, and various ways of ontical and misleading ways of understanding of ‘aletheia’ are pointed out. It is shown that the reason for understanding aletheia ontically is to conceive it as a mere negation. Next, a way of understanding aletheia ontologically is proposed against the ontical way of understanding it: if the stages of the allegory of the cave are interpreted as the very stages of the negation of a-letheia itself, then aletheia appears not as a mere negation, but as a ‘positive negation’. In this way, ‘aletheia’ has its ontological meaning in Heidegger’s sense rather than an ontical one. What enables aletheia to have its ontological meaning is the philosopher’s ‘negation of the negation’, namely, his performance of a ‘position’ through his return to the cave in the last stage of the allegory. Thus, the main thesis of this paper can be summerized as that aletheia can be made sense of ontologically only as a positive negation. Another thesis of the paper maintained as a subthesis is that the translation of ‘Wahrheit’ as ‘doğru’ or ‘doğruluk’ enables us to capture in Turkish not only the alethic character of truth much better, but also its traditional sense as correspondence, and helps us to make sense of the main thesis of this paper within the linguistic limits of Turkish. This subthesis is supported by various philosophical and linguistic reasons, as well as etymological reasons which show that doğ-ru’ and ‘doğ-mak’ have the same etymon in Ancient Turkish, and ‘doğru’ originates from ‘doğ-u-ru’.
Keywords: Heidegger, Aletheia, truth, being, ontical, ontological.
On Concept Of Dynamis in First Chapter Of Book Theta Of Metaphysics
In his Basic Problems of Phenomenology and his essay published in 1929 “On the Essence of Ground,” Martin Heidegger brought the distinction of ontical-ontological into the philosophy, and then used this distinction as ground for his many works. Ontological difference in question, even if it was identified by Heidegger, has been implicitly present as a fact since philosophy began. Because the first question, ‘what is the thing which gives their existence to the existing things’ , or what is known as the problem of arkhê, is a question that contains the ontological difference. Heidegger’s reconsideration of the history of philosophy is an indication that he deals with the problem of ontological difference in this context. Reading the history of the Being in this way is one of the most radical steps in the history of philosophy. In this study, we have studied the notion of dynamis, which has emerged in the first part of Theta, the ninth book of Aristotle’s Metaphysics, from the viewpoint of ontic-ontological distinction. In this respect, it has been touched upon concepts of energeia, entelekheia and kinêsis. Then it has been examined the concept of dynamis in within the frame of ontological difference.
Keywords: Dynamis, ontological difference, Aristotle, metaphysics, Heidegger.
Heidegger’s Unfinished Copernican Revolution
Like only a few philosophers Martin Heidegger devoted much of his time and energy to the study of other philosophers. Although his various interpretations were never meant to be scholarly contributions to the study of history of philosophy they nevertheless stirred a debate amongst scholars. Some scholars made a concession that Heidegger still would have the right to insist on his interpretations even if one could show that they are based on an incorrect reading because as a philosopher he is not bound through scholarly standards of interpretation. I will argue that we can’t afford any double standards and in fact we don’t need that as a philosophical discussion with Heidegger wouldn’t request it. I will focus on Heidegger’s early Kant interpretation and try to show that Heidegger’s interpretation was based on some groundbreaking insights which he couldn’t develop properly due to his selective reading of Kant. According to Heidegger Kant’s main purpose was to reveal the finitude of human reason. However while he therefore refers to Kant’s intuitus originarius he ignores his concept of intellectual intuition totally. Despite this constraint I will argue that his account nevertheless proves to be revolutionary in a particular sense of Copernican revolution and stress that it is indeed closer to Kant’s own intentions than ‘standard’ Kant-interpretation. However as Heidegger later retract this interpretation I describe his account accordingly as an unfinished Copernican revolution.
Keywords: Heidegger, Kant, reason, metaphysics, epistemology.
Rethinking Heidegger’s Conceptions of Truth And Freedom in Light of Kant’s Copernican Revolution
It would be enough for a moment to ponder, if one is to realize the fact that both norm and experience of truth necessitates a being which is able to exceed the natural law of things taking place in the environing world. Whereas the judgments which give the empirical knowledge of the world are verified or falsified by the facts; similarly, it is possible to account for a moral type of norm by means of which the acts effectuated, the attitudes adopted, and the choices made by the human beings as part of the social world, are evaluated in terms of good/bad. It seems to be the case that human beings do not allow all the causal interventions on him/her by the environing world during the time span of his/her cognitive, as well as moral experiences. In this sense, instead of remaining a thing among other intraworldly entities, he/she exceeds the limits put in front of him/her by the nature and becomes free (gets liberated from the law of nature). In this work, my aim will be trying to display the fact that, from the point of view of Martin Heidegger, the experience of yielding itself to the norm of human beings would be capable of uncovering the essence of freedom. Indeed, it is important right at this moment to underscore the philosopher’s contribution to the notion of the intentionality of mind by means of Dasein’s being-in-the-world. The question whether the fact that Husserl’s phenomenology was ontologized in the hands of Heidegger deepens our understanding of freedom requires to take into account the fundamental issues of transcendence and ground. To see in what sense does Heidegger’s notion of Dasein force the limits of the transcendental subject given way by the Copernican Revolution of Kant, is supposed to guide us in our effort to attain a deeper understanding of freedom.
Keywords: Heidegger, truth, Copernicus Revolution, freedom, transcendence, Kant.
Heidegger’s Kant Reading: Imagination, Time and Finitude
Martin Heidegger’s interpretation of Immanuel Kant in Kant und das Problem der Metaphysik (Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics) and Phänomenologische Interpretation von Kants Kritik der reinen Vernunft (Phenomenological Interpretation of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason), which focus on Kant’s Kritik der reinen Vernunft (Critique of Pure Reason) gives rise to several debates in philosophy. In the center of those debates lies the liability of Heidegger’s interpretation of Kant’s philosophy. It is clear that Heidegger does not have claims on being faithful to Kant, on the contrary, he sees Kant as a starting point and Critique of Pure Reason as a philosopical seed that needs to be flourished. In this respect, Heidegger wants to develop an ontology from Kant, and by underlining the difference between first and second editions of CPR he revaluates the ‘priviledge’ that Kant gives to the faculty of imagination (Einbildungskraft) in the first edition in favor of his own philospical project. In this work, it is proposed that Heidegger’s taking time as primordial through the faculty of imagination is directly related with the finitude of Dasein, its being a being-toward-death and provides a ground for stating time as ‘the horizon for all understanding of being’.
Keywords: Kant, Heidegger, Critique of Pure Reason, Kantbuch, time, Being and Time, Dasein, temporality, finitude.
On The Concept of Conscience in Heidegger and Kant
One of the ways in which Martin Heidegger differs from his predecessors is his conception of conscience. This concept is also important as it brings together central concepts in Being and Time, such as resoluteness, being-towards-death and temporality. Heidegger argues that there have been many conceptions of conscience throughout the history of philosophy, but that none of them achieved the primordial conception of conscience. One such instance of a ‘classic’ understanding of conscience can be found in the works of Immanuel Kant. Kant’s philosophy is of central importance to Heidegger’s thought, especially with regard to his earlier works. In this paper I aim to prepare a ground for a comparison of their respective methodologies by examining their conceptions of conscience and thereby examining the similarities and differences of their understandings of morality, subjectivity and temporality. What does it mean for Kant and Heidegger to have a conscience? What kind of a being requires a conscience? Is it possible to formulate a common ground between Heidegger’s phenomenological analyses and Kant’s normative arguments? What is the scope and nature of Heidegger’s criticisms of Kant, especially with regard to conscience?
Keywords: Kant, Heidegger, conscience, temporality, subjectivity, morality, normativity.
Thiking Life In Heidegger and Hegel
This paper pursues to follow the thread of Martin Heidegger’s thinking of life. In this context, this paper examines first the relation between ‘life’ and ‘world’ in Heidegger’s early thinking. Second, it investigates the significance of the way in which the issue of life reappears in Heidegger’s 1929-30 Freiburg Lectures (The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics). In these lectures, Heidegger thinks about the difference between the way of being of the animal and of human. This difference discloses the being of the animal as life, and the being of human as Dasein. Finally, this paper examines Heidegger’s reading of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit with reference to the issue of life. In this context, I consider Heidegger’s interpretation of Hegel’s concept of life in the lectures of 1930-31 (Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit) as disclosing the issues of infinity, time and being-historical. My aim here is to show the ways in which Hegel and Heidegger think life on different grounds. To this end, I claim that their difference resides in their ways of thinking life on the ground of finitude in the case of Heidegger or of infinity in the case of Hegel. This difference, at the same time, points to a relation between life and philosophy in each thinker. Although both Heidegger and Hegel would see the true being of life and philosophy in praxis, Heidegger would allow only a finite comprehension of life, whereas for Hegel philosophical thinking is nothing but the ultimate end of life in its self-development.
Keywords: Life, world, Dasein, being historical, being, time, finitude, infinity.
How Did The Heidegger Lectures Overlook Nietzsche’s Conception Of Biology?
Martin Heidegger’s Nietzsche lectures aim at rendering a respectable reading of Friedrich Nietzsche’s work. For Heidegger this effort requires distancing oneself from the ‘biologistic’ readings of Nietzsche and examining the metaphysical significance of his thought. Heidegger states that Nietzsche’s thought is the terminus of metaphysics but it cannot overcome it as it does not proceed to ask anew the question of ‘truth’. Heidegger’s reading here is heavily charged with the orientation of his own work. Due to this, as well as to his efforts to distance himself from reductive ‘biologistic’ readings, Heidegger fails to appreciate the significance of Nietzsche’s biological language. Nietzsche’s orientation beyond metaphysics is very different than that of Heidegger. Nietzsche conceives biological and ethical discourses to be intertwined in a profound manner. Nietzsche proposes to move beyond the impasse of metaphysical ‘truth’ by understanding philosophy primarily as ethical activity and by opening philosophy up to the senses, to the living, the biological. While the two thinkers agree that the ground of philosophy needs to be thought anew, their works are irreducible to one another. As he remains within the perspective of his own work, Heidegger disregards Nietzsche’s conception of biology and the transformation that this conception proposes.
Keywords: Heidegger, Nietzsche, Ethics, Biology, Physiology.
Crisis as a Phenomenological Problem: Husserl and Heidegger
Can phenomenological methods and the various traditions of phenomenological philosophy be of help in understanding the current crises in their entangled social, political and economic dimensions? Do such crises have the same structure, and if not completely identical, might there still exist an interesting connection between them? This leads to a crucial question: is there one, fundamental crisis which underlies all of the crises which are more limited in scope? If the crisis is ultimately one of rationality, then would this fundamental crisis not be a crisis related to philosophy, perhaps, a crisis of philosophy? Does not philosophical reflection on the crisis inevitably lead to philosophy’s reflection on itself, its status, its ability to describe its own crisis, and its ability to provide a cure? These questions set the theoretical framework of the following investigations. To answer these questions I propose to show first Husserls conception of ‘crisis’. Husserl outlines three clearly distinguishable, and yet related crises. There is a crisis of the sciences, understood as the natural and humanistic or human sciences. Secondly, there is a crisis of philosophy, which is a special type of science. Finally, there is a crisis of culture, which is based on a loss of meaning, After outlining what Husserl means by crisis, I propose to analyze Heidegger’s dialogue with Husserl with regard to the reciprocal implication of the crisis and Ge-stell.
Keywords: Crisis, lifeworld, rationality, Dasein, Ge-stell.
Davos, Heidegger, Cassirer: A Philosophical Disputation
In this work, I explore a unique disputation about the history of philosophy: The disputation between Martin Heidegger and Ernst Cassirer. About this discussion I elaborate the following suggestions: 1) In my opinion, Heidegger drew attention to a reasonable point about Neokantianism. According to him, making time transcendent to man, historicity turns into a mere ideal. 2) However, this criticism could be true of Cohen, but could not be for Cassirer because following transformation of his philosophy makes this criticism doubtful enough for him. 3) I believe Heidegger understood Cassirer’s intention in Die Philosophie der symbolischen Formen pretty well so much so that it is possible to assert the claim that understanding Cassirer requires understanding Heidegger. This is what makes Heidegger’s mythos conception more reasonable when compared to Cassirer’s. Thus even though Cassirer’s analyze of consciousness is one of an empirical-psychological analyze, it does not include a philosophical justification. 4) Nevertheless Heidegger tries to expose a ‘real’ temporality phenomenon, which is to my mind stucks on the ‘style’ of self-detachment from tradition. In this style his analyze of Dasein would be historyless; rather, so to speak frankly, would be solidify.
Keywords: Cassirer, Heidegger, Davos disputation, Neokantianism, Dasein, temporality, finitude-infinitude reason of human, intuitus originarius.
The Path from Heidegger to Buber from The Relation Between Human and Being to The One Between Human and Human
The relationship between the modern human established with the Being is defective. The danger of this relationship is that calculative and planned thinking puts out the existing Being. That way, the bond with the Being transforms in to controlling, arranging, measuring and putting in an order. The Being is out of control. The reason for this is the ‘technical thinking’ which categorizes everything. Unless the Being is left alone, in other words unless we manage to participate in the Being without any interference, it does not seem possible to see some other possibilities of the relationship between the human and the Being. Buber illustrates one of these different possibilities. There is no deliberation and doubt in the relationship between I and Thou, and Thou is not a predicted statistical object. Therefore, the analytical understanding of the Being on plane of coordinates replaces itself with a naive relationship. This relationship excludes all kinds of ‘ego’ contradictions which might be threat for itself. It is only Thou which can save I from introverting and contraction. Thou eases my weight by taking out myself from my inside. While Heidegger relates the Being with concept, like archaic, death, anxiety, Buber uses the relationship human and human.
Keywords: Being, human, relationship, I, thou, death.
Truth, World, Constrained Realism: An Attempt At A Heideggerian Interpretation Within The Framework Of Contemporary Ontological Debates
We begin the paper by drawing a general picture about the significance of paying due attention to the ontological ‘adventures’ of being and truth as opposed to capitalizing merely on judgments or propositions. In the second section we display in detail Martin Heidegger’s notion of the ‘world’ by using the ideas spelled out in his Being and Time. The first sub-section of that part aims to show how Heidegger treats the notion of correspondence truth, and the second sub-section tries to shed some light on his concept of the ‘world’. Next, we offer certain considerations regarding Immanuel Kant’s Transcendental Idealism and generally the nature and function of the transcendental task. That section’s main purpose is to discuss Heidegger’s relationship with the Kantian tradition through references to secondary literature. In the last part, we turn to contemporary literature and in particular to the matter of realism. In doing so, we first point out an issue about how Heidegger may be situated vis-à-vis the pertinent debates. Then, we offer our own account on this matter and argue that both Kant and Heidegger can be viewed ‒ albeit in obviously different ways ‒ to be sympathetic to a perspective that we call Constrained Realism.
Keywords: Being, Dasein, Heidegger, realism, transcendental, world.
The Question of Being and The Problem Of Truth in Heidegger
In the second half of the 1920’s, and especially in his masterpiece Being and Time, Martin Heidegger claims that Being (Sein) has been reduced to being (Seiend) throughout the history of metaphysics, that this reduction has concealed the question of Being, and that, since Being is in fact different from being, the way to reanimate the question of Being is to keep in view this fundamental difference. On the other hand, according to Heidegger, the conception of truth has undergone a fundamental transformation as the original (unsprünglich) conception of truth has been replaced by the traditional conception of truth as ‘correspondence’ or ‘adequation’. In this paper, we investigate the link between the question of Being and the problem of truth, argue that both share the same structure, and briefly describe that common structure. According to this, the problem in the traditional conception of truth is that it must assume that the relata of ‘correspondence’ or ‘adequation’ (proposition and fact, thought and nature, the ideal and the real, etc.) belong to a common ground, but does not clarify what that common ground is; yet, the common ground assumed by the traditional conception of truth is ‘being’; hence it is that the problem of truth is directly linked to the question of Being. Besides this link, the paper also explores the common structure shared by both the question of Being and the problem of truth: the fact that the traditional conception of truth necessarily presupposes and covers over the original conception of truth matches the fact that Being is inevitably reduced to being, and thereby concealed.
Keywords: Being, phenomenology, truth, correctness, correspondence theory.
On Heidegger’s Concepts of Possibility and Transcendence
Martin Heidegger’s two sentences from Being and Time can be viewed as the summary of his whole thinking. These sentences which tell us that possibility stands higher than actuality and being is nothing but transcendence pure and simple. In this study, we claim that having read in context of -a temporal vocabulary, these sentences do stand for the holistic prospect of both early and later Heidegger. To ground this claim, we try to show the temporal structure of our understanding things as ready-to-hand that leads us to a special understanding of eventuality. We claim that, understanding things as read-to-hand rather than understanding them as objects spatially opposed to subject is indeed understanding the happenings we care via the tool character of these objects. We do not care the table but eating. Eating is the temporal ekstase that comes to presence by means of the table which is nothing but a temporal function of the happening of a dinner. Happenings like eating are temporalizations that in the service of our daily needs come to presence for us and in themselves are temporally inseparable from temporalization of temporality that is Being as such. In our ready to hand mood of understanding, we care what happens with the equipmental character of the thing rather than the thing as a spatial, extant object distracting the unceasing flow of temporality. Caring what happens through the equipmental use of the thing, eating the dinner for instance, lets us experience the event of eating as an unseparated part of the unceasing flow of eventuality as such. Due to the temporal character of the event of eating, we come to understand eventuality as such as an uninterrupted flow in its temporal character. That is to say, equipmental character of the thing lets us care what we do with it as happening which gradually leads to an understanding of happening itself. Happening is a temporalization and Being as such is nothing other than the temporalization of temporality in its proximity to our understanding. In this special mood of understanding, understanding things as tools for happenings is actually disregarding things so as to let the temporalization of temporality as passing from possibility to actuality. This passage is the transcendence from the mood of possibility to actuality as openness that is nothing but transcendence pure and simple. Thereby, we conclude that in our everydayness, we are always already understanding Being as such when we care for the happening not the spatial object. To sum up, connoting some literary texts, we try to think with these Heideggerian terms rather than rendering his originality academic vocabulary.
Keywords: possibility, time, transcendens, everdayness, opennes, countability, being towards future.
An Essay Over Occurrence Manners of Destiny on Heidegger
Martin Heidegger is one of the most important philosophers of 20th century. He starts his thinking adventure by asking the meaning of Being. In another way this question asks how Being started to occur. The truth as Being’s openness, is always thought with the bound of hiding. In this article, fundamental problem is whether Heidegger has an understanding of destiny. In this context, besides trying to occur, the meaning of destiny, the manners of destiny to occur have been encountered. In every situation, destiny starts to occur in mutual relationships. Thus, the prominent concept is relationship/bond. Therefore, thinking Heidegger’s understanding of destiny on the base of relationship, makes going beyond traditional understanding of destiny possible. That means the starting point of understanding is not created by one of the sides. As a way of understanding, heading for the relationship between sides, instead of what they are; provides lots of opportunities that are not seen by us to occur. Primarily, it presents an openness to us. It can announce the entirety of muchness in Being, that they belong with each other, despite not being clear. It prevents being stuck to one of the sides and can provide we encounter a new thing. Thus, it can be seen that destiny is the relationship of relationships that present in five manners. The method used in here is the Mutual Reading Method which is reached by relying upon hermeneutic and phenomenology.
Keywords: Heidegger, destiny, being, truth, relationship.
Reflections on Heidegger
This paper consists of various reflections and thoughts on the 20th century German philosopher Martin Heidegger. Heidegger’s connection with the Nazis, his conflict with the logical positivists, the opposition of the logical positivists to the Nazis, a comparision of the main philosophical arguments of Rudolf Carnap and Heidegger and an analysis of particular parts from Heidegger’s Being and Time are the main issues in the paper. Heidegger is a controversial figure because of his ties with the Nazi regime during the 1930’s. On the other hand it is difficult to say that Heidegger’s philosophical ideas and theories were an outcome of the Nazi ideology. However it is also a historical fact that unlike Heidegger, the logical positivists were in a state of resistance against the Nazis and had to pay the price with murder, exile and expulsion from their universities. Regarding the philosophical aspect, the logical positivists and one of their leading figures Carnap criticized Heidegger for developing a metaphysics which was unverifiable and devoid of a cognitive meaning. Carnap stated that such theories can only be regarded as an expression of a life-feeling, however that art does this in a more accurate way. Heidegger in turn criticized the logical positivists for their inability to understand an analysis of the Being of the human being in the framework of a fundamental ontology and also for reducing philosophy to logic and the sciences. Heidegger’s ontology was to a significant extent influenced by particular previous philosophers. However one of the most interesting and original ideas in Being and Timeis the analysis of the relationship between Being towards Death, anxiety and authenticity. Whether this analysis can be regarded as a metaphysical theory devoid of a cognitive meaning and be evaluated as an expression of a life-feeling is an open question.
Keywords: Heidegger, Nazism, Being, logical positivism, Carnap, metaphysics, cognitive meaning, verifiability, expression of a life-feeling, Being towards Death, anxiety, authenticity.
World and Logos in Heidegger
Heidegger, while determining Dasein as being-in-the-world, argues that it is necessary to treat the fundamental promis of phenomenology which is ‘to the things themselves’, on the basis of the question of the meaning of being. Being is not only the ground of meaning which is to be seen but also a relationality through which the latter is also produced. World as this relationality is understood not as the totality of beings but with the selfhood of Dasein. It is obvious that Heidegger using expressions such as being-in-the-world, world-forming or worlding of the world points to such a relational occurence. Dasein-world relationality is based on Dasein’s initial encounter with beings and in this way relationality comes with logos through which being presents itself as meaning through the uncoveredness of beings. In this encounter which happens through the horizon of logos and being, we will see why and how apophansis becomes an important concept. And in order to see a relation between world and logos, we should not forget that Dasein‘s’encounter with beings has two aspects. Accordingly, Dasein is both familiar with beings and through this familiarity it is already beyond them. Thus, Dasein as ontological transcendence exists beyond beings which are manifest as a whole and nevertheless it finds itself in the midst of beings as a whole. My aim in this paper, limiting myself to the thinker’s transcendental period, is to follow all of these concepts in their relation to each other and to grasp how Dasein’s encounter with beings becomes manifest in terms of a relation between world and logos. In this way, we can have some idea about both being and logos relation and about the thinker’s comprehension of language which determines his later thought.
Keywords: World, Dasein, logos, wholeness, Being.
Heidegger and The Problem of Freedom
The aim of this paper is to present the main results of a research which explains and discusses position, statute, development, philosophical meaning and importance of the problem of freedom in Martin Heidegger’s thought. In accordance with this purpose, in the first part, it tackles Immanuel Kant’s doctrine of freedom, analyses and critical remarks made by Heidegger in his 1930 course entitled Essence of human freedom, Introduction to philosophy about this doctrine and Kantian transcendental philosophy in general. In the second part, it examines and discusses Heidegger’s 1929 essay entitled Essence of ground in light of pieces of data provided by 1930 course and through the fundamental ontological structures of Dasein disclosed in Existential Analytic which is the essential part of Heidegger’s major work Being and Time. The principal argument of the paper is that although after its first step from the question of Being of being toward the question of truth of Being with Fundamental Ontology Heidegger’s deconstruction of metaphysics prepares its second step toward the thought of history of Being by a wide-ranging discussion conducted around modern notions of freedom, it remains an accurate repetition of Kantian transcendental investigation within the framework of ontological difference despite all its objections addressed to the latter concerning the understanding of Being, determination of causality-freedom relation and the question of possibility of historical knowledge.
Keywords: Freedom, causality, transcendence, Being, ground.
Heidegger’s Art Philosophy and Analysis of Concept of Aletheia in Association with Performance Arts
This article is a research and inquiry into Martin Heidegger’s “The Origin of the Artifact”, a conference held in 1946, and his views on art philosophy and art. In the study, starting from Heidegger’s description of object and art object, similar discourses he has in common with Platon’s cave allegory are expressed parallel to his general method of investigation. In addition, the study directing towards the field of essences requires a phenomenological approach. The common tendencies of the discourses present in Heidegger philosophy with different systems of thought are resolved by forming an examination of Nietzsche’s claim that the artist excludes himself in the creation of art. The study based on Heidegger’s hermeneutic cycle of art, is tied to the concept of Alethia in the sense that existence and reality are revealed, and then relational analysis is made through the discourse of ‘coming out’ and ‘coming to appear’ with performance art. In the research process, an inductive orientation is made which is one of the qualitative research techniques. It has been assumed that selected performance artists as a sample through purposeful scanning represent the subject adequately.
Keywords: Heidegger, the Origin of Artifact, Alethia, being and truth, hermeneutic loop, performance art, Marina Abramovic, Ai Weiwei, Heather Hansen.
Glorious Greeting in Kingdom of The Holy: Poetry and Thinking
For Martin Heidegger’s taking himself as a guide that ontological necessity of overcoming the metaphysical tradition and all possible metaphysics especially in an interval as declaring his transformation of thinking and maybe in his all process of thinking, poetry has an immensely profound meaning. According to Heidegger, poetry will find its this profound meaning in the form of what the Greeks call poiesis. The most magnificient opening pointed by Heidegger in the exploration of the essence of poetry that the poems of Hölderlin and his poet-thinker identity. Poetry’s encountering with its lost essence is possible only by a glorious greeting to a way of thinking that is dedicated to depths and on track of the darkness and ambigious. This glorious greeting is the gathering of poet and thinker, poetry and thinking, in the writ/call of the holy. The possible opening of this kind of gathering is noticed by Heidegger that an aletheic repetition as the origin of language. Or it is the repetition of the mourning and forgetting for the new beginnings. Thus by breaking metaphysics that has completed itself with all its possibilities in modern world, will be appear in an interval for embracing language and thinking with their rich possibilities. This article subjects itself the privilege role of Hölderlin for Heidegger’s razing to the ground of the metaphysics’ prevailing way of language and thinking by the poietic essence of the poetical.
Keywords: metaphysics, poetry, thinking, holy writ, mourning, physis, aletheia.
Creative Poetic of Language and Art in Heidegger
With this article Martin Heidegger’s effort to reach the reality of the existence of human being through art, language and poetry is told. Also, it is claimed that for Heidegger belonging to only at the Existentialistic Philosophy is unfair. Because he worked on the real problems of the existence of human being and also he wrote on different fields like the times of humans, lives, world, languages, arts and dialogues through the existentialism. He claimed that a society can be survived and the heroic soul can arise through turning the language into poetry. Criticizing the modern arts at this point, Heidegger claimed that the new art involving speed and technology is away from the reality of human beings. As believing an art, which supports the human to be by oneself and showing the real purposes of the existence of the objects, can frame the all dimensions of the existentialism. To give an example for his opinions, Heidegger shows the poems of Friedrich Hölderlin which claims the forgotten reality, the killed Gods, the vagrant of human being, the blast off the people to the world, the nonsense and very fast times of people is flowing to a meaningful way. This flowing is the home of the existence and the reality of the language, where we found the origin, first spring, unity and the peace for the human being.
Keywords: Heidegger, Hölderlin, poetry, language, existentialism, modern art.