Felsefi Düşün Issue:6 – Hegel ve Hegelcilik / April 2016
Issue Editor: Enver ORMAN (İstanbul Üniversitesi)
Please click on the name of any article for abstract and keywords
Ömer Faik ANLI (Ankara Üniversitesi)
Zehragül AŞKIN (Mersin Üniversitesi)
Güçlü ATEŞOĞLU (Mimar Sinan Üniversitesi)
Uğur EKREN (İstanbul Üniversitesi)
Mehmet GÜNENÇ (İstanbul Üniversitesi)
Gamze KESKİN YURDAKURBAN (Kırklareli Üniversitesi)
Murad OMAY (İstanbul Üniversitesi)
Şahin ÖZÇINAR (Akdeniz Üniversitesi)
Ahu TUNÇEL ( Maltepe Üniversitesi)
Yücel YÜKSEL (İstanbul Üniversitesi)
The Text In which the Hegelian Historicism Was Born: The Positivity of The Christian Religion
In addition to the Hegelian philosophy of history, which can be defined as a conceptual look at the World history, there is another historicity in Hegel’s thought, which can be called as ‘ontological historicism’. This historicism shows itself for the first time in the second version of one of his earlier texts, “The Positivity of the Christian Religion”. This historicism, which can be tracked in the later system texts of Hegel, claims that man as a social being does not have an extra-historical essence, that its essence is determined historically. In this context, all of man’s faculties, including reason, and its being, exist as a becoming in history, and Hegel’s concept of spirit is the main concept that gives an account of this historical becoming. According to Hegel, spirit is the human World which creates itself by its own movement and in which oppositions like interiority – exteriority, subject – object, immanence – transcendence come into unity, and in which these oppositions are sublated. Every opposition and conflict within society and in history happen on the absolute ground of the spirit, and in this sense, there is no outside of spirit. In this text, our aim is to detect this historicity as it is born in “The Positivity of the Christian Religion” before showing its presence in the Hegelian system.
Keywords: Hegel, historicity, positivity, essence, spirit.
‘Beautiful’ as Finite Infinity in Hegel’s Philosophy of Art
It is aimed in this article to show how the art and beautiful which is an important development step in Hegel’s spirit philosophy has been positioned. It is also aimed to explain how Hegel’s perspective into art practice and his discourse on the end of art have been grounded in its system. Should Hegel’s discourse on the end of art be taken as a stimulus initiative of creative function of art, or has the art really come to an end? Thus, it is intended to discuss how discourse on the end of art has affected thinkers, artists, art historians, and what the positive or negative impacts of Hegel are in the modern art. For Hegel, who thinks that the art is first of all a matter of existence, it is attempted to explain by various art practices what kind of existence the arts and beauty are. Hegel who uses terms like artistic beauty and philosophy of art instead of aesthetics, liberated the art from all practical desires in its own dialectical philosophy for the investigation of the meaning and function of art almost in a sense of mission. In this regard, he provided the art to have its own purpose in itself and its autonomy, however, he mentioned that all this autonomy will find the final point in philosophy. In this article, it is presumed in this sense to show how Hegel places a great emphasis on the realization of the spirit in art and art objects and esteems it very highly.
Keywords: Hegel, Philosophy of Art, beautiful, end of art, modern art.
Does Hegel Have a Future?: Catherine Malabou’s Plastic Hegelianism
Heidegger had claimed that the essence of Hegel’s understanding of time lies in the past, there is no future and accordingly there is no genuine temporality in Hegel thought. Against this idea, Catherine Malabou has displayed that there in no single form of temporality in Hegel and there are various subjectivities that correspond to various forms of temporalities which have the idea of future. In this article, the notion of plasticity will be discussed by examining Malabou’s Hegel interpretation. It will be presented how Malabou simultaneously re-read and re-form Hegelian dialectics, Heideggerian destruction of metaphysic (Abbau) and Derridian deconstruction by means of the concept of plasticity which has developed from Hegel’s philosophy. Moreover, this notion’s efficiency for interpretation of current brain researches and philosophy of nature, as well as ethical and political opportunities will be mentioned. Thus, the potency of Hegelian dialectics in encountering with today and future, it’s ethical, psychical and political power, it’s capacity to facing contemporary science will be indicated. How such a plastic interpretation of Hegel will give form to the coming world and how itself receives new forms will be showed, so that, it would be tested the very plasticity of Hegel’s plasticity.
Keywords: Hegel, future, temporality, voir venir, cerebrality, auto-affection.
The Relation of Will and Democracy in Hegel’s Philosophy
In this article, the problem of democracy will be discussed but it will be addressed in relation to Hegel’s political philosophy. It is well-known how Hegel is against democracy. But what is the problem of democracy for Hegel? Why is Hegel very much against democracy? Hegel wrote Die Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts (Elements of the Philosophy of Right) to explain his ideal state, his political view and in this book we can find his critiques for democracy. He considers democracy as the governance of masses of people and arbitrary will. Plato defines democracy emerging from oligarchy as a kind of government; for him inappeasable desire of freedom leads the destruction of democracy and the rise of tyranny. Although the challenge of Hegel to democracy does not seem as a problem as in Plato which was thought to result from excesses, he also repines the arbitrary will of people. The main aim of this article is to reveal his critiques in relation to some of his concepts such as will, arbitrary will, rational, reality, which lead us to comprehend the problem of democracy. Hegel not just criticizes the form of democracy but also he suggests a new form of government as an alternative to democracy. In this regard, the article represents his ideal form of the state to reveal the fundamental problem of democracy.
Keywords: Hegel, democracy, will, arbitrary will, rationality.
The Meaning of War in Hegel and his Times
The purpose of this paper is to retrace the meaning of war in Hegel’s thought, and relate it to his era. The conception of war in this era differs widely from contemporary war figures. Hegel’s thoughts about war should be considered within this transformation. For Hegel and Clausewitz, the war means more than the basic instinct of human nature and violence. It refers to true marks of sovereignty in state. As a relationship between states, it ensures the distribution of right among sovereigns. On one hand, the existence of state necessarily relies on war, on the other hand this necessity does not require the condition which determines the content of togetherness in terms of ethical life. Distinctively, the transformation of war in modern era has reversed the original relationship between what’s necessary for state and the conditions of togetherness. Although new war figures directly determine the conditions of ethical life.
Keywords: Hegel, Clausewitz, war, sovereignty, politics.
An Examination of the Phenomenology of Spirit’s AIm, Manner of Progression and Method
With the Phenomenology of Spirit, Hegel put forward his own point of view in the history of philosophy. The work is a phenomenological journey of the natural consciousness toward a scientific or absolute knowledge. In other words, in that journey spirit will know itself as spirit, so it will gain a self-consciousness. This development or progression is necessary and consciousness will experience this process by going through the various shapes of consciousness. The development is necessary because the natural consciousness, like the bud, has its end at the beginning of the road and the end will be achieved through the dialectical movement. Natural consciousness will reach the absolute knowledge by the way of the dialectical movement. It will linger on various shapes of consciousness but it will never stop at anyone of them and never at rest until it obtains the scientific knowledge. And ultimately the idea which the true is not only substance but equally subject, is reveal itself in the phenomenological journey. So in that article, we will try to explain how is consciousness’s form of development, what is its aim and its method, based on the work’s “Preface” and “Introduction”. Our aim is to provide some kind of access road about Phenomenology of Spirit for readers who will attempt to understand this difficult and magnificent work.
Keywords: truth, substance, subject, consciousness, dialectics, sublation, absolute, criterion.
Comedy as The Dialectics of Universal and Particular in Hegel
The aim of this study is to describe the position of the comedy which is an important concept in Hegel’s philosophy. There is no doubt that Hegel is the philosopher who gives the highest value to the comedy among modern philosophers. Hegel discusses comedy in the “Art Formed as Religion” section in his work The Phenomenology of Spirit in which he explains the adventure of Spirit. With the emergence of ancient Greek sites, Spirits witching from natural religion to religion formed as an art, the adventure of Spirit has taken the form of discursive way. Spirit that moves toward the absolute journey of universal firstly act with an awareness form that is connected to social reality and the best example of this awareness form is the social and cultural environment of ancient Greek world. In ancient Greek religion, this adventure makes progress as epic, tragedy and comedy. In epic, the subject explains universal, essential and Absolute, in tragedy the subject stimulates the universal, essential and Absolute, and in comedy the subject is the universal, essential and Absolute. Therefore, Hegel views comedy as ‘the highest spiritual work of art’ in this trio.
Keywords: Phenomenology, consciousness, self-consciousness, ethical life, ethical spirit, epic, tragedy, comedy, consciousness of comic.